Korinthos or Corinth.
Ancient Korinth is strategically located on the
Isthmus of Korinth, linking the Peloponessos to the rest
of mainland Greece. It is believed to have been first
settled in the Early Neolithic Age by Dorian Greeks, the
so-called Heraclidei (the sons of Hercules). By the 7th
Century B.C. Korinth had become a leading trading and
colonizing power. Korinthian pottery and bronze were
traded as far away as Spain, Egypt and the Black Sea.
Korinthian power declined in the 5th century, however,
due to the Persian Wars and the dominance of Athens. In
the Classical period Korinth aligned herself with Sparta
against Athens. In the Hellenistic period she was a
prominent member of the Hellenic league under Macedonian
dominance, but later rebelled to join the Achaean League.
In 146 B.C., when Rome defeated the League, the Roman
general Mummius razed Korinth to the ground. It was
abandoned until Julius Caesar established a colony of
veterans there in 44 B.C. Korinth soon became the capital
of Roman Achaia, and remained so until the barbarian
invasions of the 3rd and 4th centuries.